**Instructions:**

- Enter your cash flows (comma-separated) and discount rate.
- Choose the compounding frequency and enter the inflation rate if needed.
- Click "Calculate" to calculate the present value.
- View the results, detailed calculation, and chart below.
- Your calculation history will be displayed in the "Calculation History" section.
- Use the "Clear Results" button to reset the form and chart.
- Click "Copy Results" to copy the present value to the clipboard.

**Present Value:**

**Cash Flow Schedule:**

Period | Cash Flow | Discount Factor | Present Value |
---|

**Detailed Calculation:**

**Calculation History:**

## What is Present Value of Cash Flows?

The Present Value (PV) of cash flows, also known as the Present Value of Money (PVM) or Present Discounted Value (PDV), is a financial concept used to determine the current value of future cash flows or a series of payments when discounted back to the present day. In other words, it calculates how much a future sum of money is worth today, taking into account the time value of money.

## All Formulae Related to Present Value of Cash Flows

he Present Value (PV) of cash flows can be calculated using various formulas depending on the nature of the cash flows. Here are the key formulas related to the Present Value of Cash Flows:

**Present Value of a Single Future Cash Flow**:- For a single future cash flow (CF) to be received or paid at time period “n,” the Present Value (PV) can be calculated as follows:

- PV is the Present Value.
- CF is the future cash flow.
- r is the discount rate.
- n is the number of time periods until the cash flow is received or paid.

**Present Value of an Annuity**:- An annuity is a series of equal cash flows occurring at regular intervals. The formula for the Present Value of an ordinary annuity is:

- PV is the Present Value.
- PMT is the periodic payment (annuity).
- r is the discount rate.
- n is the total number of periods.

**Present Value of a Perpetuity**:- A perpetuity is a series of equal cash flows that continue indefinitely. The formula for the Present Value of a perpetuity is:

- PV is the Present Value.
- PMT is the periodic payment (perpetuity).
- r is the discount rate.

**Present Value of Growing Perpetuity**:- In some cases, cash flows may grow at a constant rate (g) indefinitely. The formula for the Present Value of a growing perpetuity is:

- PV is the Present Value.
- PMT is the initial periodic payment.
- r is the discount rate.
- g is the constant growth rate of cash flows.

**Present Value of Uneven Cash Flows**:- For uneven or irregular cash flows occurring at different time periods, you can calculate the Present Value by individually discounting each cash flow back to the present and summing them up:

- PV is the Present Value.
- CF1, CF2, …, CFk are the individual cash flows at time periods n1, n2, …, nk.
- r is the discount rate.

## Practical Uses of Present Value of Cash Flows Calculator

A Present Value of Cash Flows Calculator is a valuable tool in financial analysis and decision-making. It is used in various practical applications across different industries and fields. Here are some common practical uses of such a calculator:

**Investment Appraisal**:- Investors and businesses use it to assess the attractiveness of investment opportunities by calculating the present value of expected cash flows, helping them make investment decisions.

**Project Evaluation**:- Companies evaluate the financial viability of projects by discounting the future cash flows associated with the project to the present value. This helps in project selection and prioritization.

**Loan Analysis**:- Lenders and borrowers use it to evaluate loan terms by calculating the present value of loan payments, helping borrowers understand the cost of borrowing.

**Business Valuation**:- Business owners and buyers use it to estimate the value of a business based on its projected future cash flows, assisting in negotiations and acquisitions.

**Real Estate**:- Real estate professionals calculate the present value of rental income or property resale value to assess the potential return on investment in real estate properties.

**Asset Purchase Decisions**:- Individuals and businesses determine the present value of future income streams from assets such as machinery, equipment, or intellectual property to make purchase decisions.

## Applications of Present Value of Cash Flows Calculator in Various Fields

A Present Value of Cash Flows Calculator has diverse applications across various fields and industries due to its ability to assess the current value of future cash flows, considering the time value of money. Here are some specific applications in different fields:

**Finance and Investment**:**Investment Appraisal**: Investors and financial analysts use it to evaluate the profitability of investment opportunities by discounting expected cash flows.**Stock Valuation**: Investors value stocks by calculating the present value of expected future dividends or cash flows.

**Business and Economics**:**Project Evaluation**: Companies assess the financial viability of projects by determining the present value of project cash flows.**Business Valuation**: Business owners use it to estimate the value of a company based on future cash flows.**Financial Planning**: Businesses incorporate present value analysis into financial planning to make informed decisions regarding investments, budgets, and funding.

**Real Estate**:**Property Investment**: Real estate professionals calculate the present value of rental income and property resale value to assess investment opportunities.**Mortgage Analysis**: Homebuyers evaluate mortgage options by discounting future mortgage payments to their present value.

**Banking and Finance**:**Loan Pricing**: Banks use it to determine loan interest rates and pricing structures by assessing the present value of loan cash flows.**Risk Management**: Financial institutions assess the present value of assets and liabilities to manage risk and compliance.

**Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals**:**Pharmaceutical Investments**: Pharmaceutical companies use it to evaluate the present value of research and development investments in drug development.**Medical Equipment Purchases**: Hospitals assess the present value of costs and benefits associated with purchasing medical equipment.

## References

- https://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/pdfiles/eqnotes/packet1a2pg.pdf
- https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3473153

Last Updated : 27 February, 2024

Sandeep Bhandari holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Computers from Thapar University (2006). He has 20 years of experience in the technology field. He has a keen interest in various technical fields, including database systems, computer networks, and programming. You can read more about him on his bio page.

HelenLThe informative content on practical uses and applications of present value of cash flows is extensive, offering a holistic view of its relevance across different sectors and activities.

AlbertPhillipsThe application of present value of cash flows in fields such as finance and investment, business and economics is well presented here, showcasing the calculator’s wide-ranging utility.

SophiaFThe calculative aspect of present value of cash flows can be daunting, especially for those new to financial analyses. Exploring some illustrative examples could make this content more relatable and engaging.

GeraldWilsonThe practical uses of present value of cash flows are vast and varied, spanning from investment appraisal to real estate. This comprehensive explanation gives a deeper understanding of its significance.

AnthonyWThis is a very informative and helpful explanation about present value of cash flows and the different formulas used to calculate it. It’s essential knowledge for sound financial decision-making.

CharlesPIs there a simpler way to explain present value of cash flows? This post can be overwhelming for beginners in finance and economics. It might benefit from a more gradual introduction to the concept.

PatrickFI find the emphasis on calculator applications in finance and investment fields quite enlightening. It demonstrates the pivotal role of present value of cash flows in investment decision-making processes.

RJonesThis post is a bit too technical and formula-heavy, making it less accessible to those without a strong financial background. Perhaps simplifying some parts would make it more engaging.

NateCWhile the post covers the applications comprehensively, it lacks real-world examples to illustrate its points. Integrating some practical scenarios would enhance the understanding of how present value of cash flows works.

GinaHThe use of a cash flow calculator in real estate and asset purchase decisions is enlightening. It shows that the concept has practical implications in the real world, which is crucial to understand.